[Editor’s note] Zhao Yi, a historian of the Qing Dynasty, believes that there are only two forms of Yi Dai: “In ancient times, there were only the two innings of Zhengzheng and Zen.” Although there were legends in Yao and Shun Zen in ancient times, the real “Zen Jean” in history did not “Cao Wei Daihan” appeared. Professor Zhu Ziyan, the Department of History of Shanghai University, refer to the “Cao Wei Dai Han” method of “Zen”. He believes that the “Zen generation” is essentially the combination of “Zen Jean” and “recruitment”. From the perspective of objective effects, the social turmoil caused by the Zen generation is less and the cost of social costs is relatively small. These are worthy of affirmation. of. To investigate the prosperity of Zen political politics, it can also reflect the operating trajectory of Chinese imperial power from one side.
Why did “Cao Wei Daihan” happen when Cao Yu? The same “Zen”, why is “Sima Daiwei” more fame than “Cao Wei Daihan” in history? Why did the “Zen” be slightly micro -style after the Song Dynasty? Surging News interviewed Professor Zhu Ziyan at the Department of History of Shanghai University and asked him to talk about his views on the above issues.
Professor Zhu Ziyan
In ancient times, there were legends of Yao and Shun Zen, and the real “Zen Jean” in history did not appear until “Cao Wei Dynasty”. You call “Cao Wei Daihan” “Zen”, so what is the difference between “Zen” and “Zen Jean”?
Zhao Yi, a historian in the Qing Dynasty, believes that there are only two forms of Yi Dai: “In ancient times, there were only the two innings of Zhengbang and Zen.” It’s better. “Zen Jean” is a non -violent peace transition between the pre -Qin social tribe. In ancient times, the legend of Yao and Shun Zen was legendary, but to a large extent, it was virtuous. More “Zen” in history. “Zen” is essentially the combination of “Zen Jean” and “Zhengbu”. The real Zen generation began in “Cao Wei Daihan”, and the Zen generations before that failed.
Let’s talk about Zen Jie, Yao Shun has not been formed by the country, and belongs to the tribal alliance under the premise of public ownership, and implements a military democratic system. Even if there is really a “Zen Jean” system between Yao and Shun, it is a replacement between the tribal chiefs. From now on, there are many problems about Yao and Shun’s records in the literature, such as “Historical Records of the Five Emperor Benji”, Yao Shun’s reign of the ancient Saint Jun is so doubtful that according to the documents such as “Han Feizi”, There was no Zen in ancient times. Shun imprisoned Yao to win his position, and in his later years, Shun was exiled by Yu. However, the Han Confucianism in the later generations of the Zen concession in ancient times, and admired the “Zen Joan System” as the best way to replace the dynasty. In fact, it is because Confucianism starts from the theory of “the end of the five virtues” theory. It is hoped that the form of regime change is more in line with the guidelines of the world and moralization.
During the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, the private ownership was produced. The “country” was formed as a regime form. If you want to “resume retro” at this time, it is difficult to achieve the system of Zen concessions. Yan Wangyu gave the throne Zen to his son, but he failed soon under the interference of Qi State. After Shang Yang’s reform, Qin Xiaogong also wanted to be located in Shang Yang, but Shang Yang probably knew himself and did not accept it. Although Qin Xiaogong was out of the heart of “Gong”, his move in essentially harmed Shang Yang. In the process of Shang Yang’s reform, the two teachers of the prince were extremely severe punishment. , Crack the Shangyang car. In my opinion, the death of Shang Yang is not exactly caused by reform, and I am afraid that it has a lot to do with the willingness of the “Zen Jean” in Qin Xiaogong before.
In the late Western Han Dynasty, Wang Mang used the “Zen Jean” and “five virtues” and “谶 Wei’s theory” to practice the emperor. This is an attempt in the unified dynasty, and it is a full -scale practice of the Zen of Zen in ancient society. The full set of rituals and processes of Zen Jean were completely formed when Wang Mang Daihan. In my opinion, the Zen Jean System must be integrated with the Jiuxi system. According to the Book of Rites, Jiuxi is a car, horses, clothes, instruments, Zhuhu, Na Ma, tiger, ax, bow ya, 秬鬯. Cao Cao was admitted to Jiuxi, Feng Gongjian, and Cao Yu finally completed the meditation. Therefore, the ultimate establishment of the Jiuxi system and the Zen system should be Cao Cao Feng Gong Jianguo and Cao Yu’s period of Zen.
Zhao Yi discussed in his “Nine Tinwen” special entries in his “Nine History”: “Before the Zen Dynasty, there must be Jiuxi. , Also from Cao Cao. Press, Wang Mang has received Jiuxi first, but his text is only more than 500 words. Those who received Jiuxi became the quasi -emperor. The utensils of Jiuxi’s reward have greatly surpassed the category of ministers, and basically they are exclusive to the emperor. Although Wang Mang was replaced by Jiuxi and Xingzhan, at that time, the Royal family surnamed Liu in the Western Han Dynasty had a strong restoration. Liu Xuan, Liu Xiu and others played the banner of ZTE Han room. In addition, Wang Mang’s restructuring was unscrupulous, which caused the people to resentment. Wang Mang failed soon, and the new dynasty he built failed to be recognized by the world. The new Mangzhi regime was defined as a pseudo -government power by later generations.
To sum up the difference between Zen Jean and the Zen dynasty, there are at least three points: First, under the premise of “Gongtianxia”, Zen Jean is the phase meditation between people; and the Zen generation is under the premise of “family world”. It is a meditation between dynasties and dynasties. Second, the ancient Zen position is based on the world, and the selection of sages and energy; and the meditation of the meditation is based on the name of “Zen”, that is, the name of the fake meditation, and the monarch and minister from the surname to the other surname. Third, the “Zen position” is the active of the Zen monarch to give the monarch to the recipient; and the “Zen” is the latter forced the former Zen position, the latter active, and the former is passive.
When Cao Cao started his troops when the Han Yan was dead, his cultural governance martial arts was built in the world, and he could be called the emperor on behalf of Han, but why did “Cao Wei” occurred during the Cao Yu period?
Although the protagonist of Cao Wei and Han was Cao Yu, the entire incident went through three generations: Cao Cao raised the foundation of the Han Dynasty, Cao Yu was called the emperor, and Cao Rui stabilized the regime. These three stages were indispensable and complemented. The decisions of San Cao played an important role in the occurrence, development and completion of the Zen generation at different stages.
Xuchang, Henan, statue of Cao Cao, Emperor Wei Wudi Square.
Although the power of replacing the Eastern Han Dynasty on the occasion of the Han and Wei dynasties is not countless, the resistance of the Han Dynasty is very great. As Mr. Tian Yuqing said: “The Confucianism in the Eastern Han Dynasty was taught by Confucianism, and the atmosphere also affected the mentality and behaviors of the master of the family of the family. The change of the change of dynasty is a very difficult thing. The appearance of Wei, Shu, and Wu Wu is not the momentum of power. The reasons for more than 20 years. “The Han Dynasty has a history of more than 400 years. In the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, although the Han family was micro -style, it still was sacred and orthodox. Entering customs, it is extremely difficult to replace it completely. This is why Cao Cao dare not show Han. Cao Cao really doesn’t really want to be emperor? No, he lamented before his death: “If the destiny is in me, I am King Zhou Wen.” Cao Cao is better than King Zhou Wen, then his son is King Zhou Wu. Mr. Xie Bozan said: “Cao Cao puts the imperial robe as a shirt inside.” Liu Bei and Sun Quan went far with Cao Cao in terms of qualifications and strength. Therefore, Cao Cao did not dare to act lightly. Cao Cao was very cautious about moving Han Ding and had a sober understanding of the power of supporting Han. Yin Jian Dong Zhuo, Yuan Shu, Liu Biao and others learned the lessons. He determined that if he rashly called the emperor, he was equivalent to baking himself on the fire, so he could not be fooled by Sun Quan.
In this generation of Cao Yu, the time of the Han Dynasty has matured. He used the five elements of the five elements of Yiyi and Yin and Yang, and the runes proved that it was in line with his destiny. Emperor Han Xian made several meditation, and Cao Yongyou resigned several times. Later, through the creation of public opinion, he appeared in the ninth and fifth position. Cao Yu’s process of calling the emperor was an exquisite imitation of Yao Shun Zen Jean. He lamented after he was ascended: “Shun Yu, I know it!” It is clear that now he imitates the story of Yao Shun, and Yao Shun Zen makes it a reality. Cao Yu and Shun Chan gave a comprehensive imitation. Legend has it that after Shun ascended the throne, he married the two daughters of Yao, Emperor, and the female hero; after Cao Yu became the emperor, he also married the two daughters of Emperor Han Xian. On this issue, there are many non -negotiated historians, thinking that Cao Yu marrys a trip to Yueyue and has a lustfulness. In my opinion, in order to play the Han and Wei Zen generation more realistic and more successful, Cao Yu rebelled against the traditional ethics and morality. It is a political need to marry the nephew of the Han and Wei. Ritual.
It is also the “Zen generation”, why is “Sima Dai Wei” more fame than “Cao Wei Daihan” in history?
There are many historians of the first three kingdoms. Relatively speaking, the study of the history of the latter three kingdoms is slightly weaker. This uneven condition has caused people to ignore the Sima’s achievements of the unification of the Three Kingdoms. Essence
From ancient times to the present, most people have criticized the Western Jin Dynasty established by Sima’s. I think the key problem lies in his “Dai Wei”. Cao Cao has been regarded as a “Han thief” for a long time and is also for his “Dai Han”. It was not until Guo Moruo’s case of Cao Cao’s case that Cao Cao’s image was changed. Traditional ethics and morality leads to the same “meditation” and “usurping position”, but they agree with the regime seized through force.
Sima Yi was better than that of Cao Cao on behalf of Wei Cao Cao. Zhao Yiyun: “After the soldiers were in the storm, they worked hard for the operation. In the end, he went on to say: “The Sima family did not fail, took the opportunity to steal power, abandoned an emperor, killed the emperor, and seized its position.
In fact, Cao Wei and Han did not exactly the peaceful transition. Cao Cao Xing’s soldiers destroyed Yuan Shao, Yuan Shu, Lu Bu, Liu Biao, Tao Qian, Zhang Xiu, Zhang Lu and many other princes. Martial arts, on behalf of Han, still have the meaning of “recruitment”. However, Cao always believes that although the “Zhengzheng” can obtain actual power, it is difficult to obtain legitimacy in the Han Dynasty, which is deeply immersed in Confucianism. risk. Facts have proved that only the combination of the two methods of Zhengbang and Zen is Zen. Sima’s problem is precisely the lack of “recruitment” in the process of obtaining power. In the “martial arts”, Sima Yi only calmed the mediocre Meng Da and Gongsun Yuan of Liaodong. He just barely tied the enemy Zhuge Liang. Martial arts.
Without prominent military merits, the “Zen generation” will lack social influence and identity, and lack prestige above the court; otherwise, if only “conquest” and no “Zen concession”, it will not occupy the commanding heights of Confucian ethics and morality. It is easy to be classified as “usurping power.” By the way, why can’t Zhuge Liang “replace” Liu Chan? I think it is also caused by the failure of its Northern Expedition and not satisfying the political needs of “recruitment” because of the “recovery Han room”.
How do you evaluate Sima’s Zen issue? Is this more peaceful power change?
Sima Daiwei was actually caused by the three generations of the Sima family. After the death of Sima Yi, Sima was in power, and he abandoned Cao Fang and the chaos of calming without Qiu Jian, which further consolidated power. Sima Zhao played a more critical role. Although Sima Zhao’s mouth was not good, he left an eternal name with “Sima Zhao’s Heart”. However, this person actually has a greatness in the world: the “Jin Law” he revised is wider than the criminal law of “Han Law”; he also abolished the people and release the country’s farmers; Relief. From the perspective of the trend of historical development, Sima Zhao’s extinguishing Shu inherited Cao Cao’s career. He ended the situation of the Three Kingdoms and laid the foundation for the unified cause. If there are no outstanding politicians and strategists such as Sima Zhao in the later period of the Three Kingdoms, it is impossible to achieve the unity of the country quickly. He made a high evaluation of Sima’s unification of the country’s achievements. He said: “In addition to the great harm of the Three Kingdoms, the convergence of the late Han Dynasty, the obscure of the nine domains, and the successful merits of the thousand years. Sima’s also “. Looking at the history of the Three Kingdoms, Xi’s explanation is the theory of China. Although the faint woman such as Emperor Emperor and Jia Queen appeared in the late Western Jin Dynasty, which led to the chaos of the Eight Kings and the Wuhu chaos, this account could not be counted as Sima’s head. Does the crime of Emperor Chongzhen in the late Ming Dynasty be taken to the founding of the founding of the country?
Stills of “Sima Yi’s Military Division Alliance”
Discuss the issue of “Zen” in ancient China, it is necessary to consider phased division. Although “Cao Wei Daihan” is the initiator, it is “Sima Daiwei” that really uses the “Zen generation” as a dynasty change. Including the Song Qi Liang Chen of the Southern Dynasties; the northern and northern Qi of the Northern Dynasties; the Western Wei and North Zhou Dynasty. Wing) The world completely accepted the paradigm of this kind of power transfer and became a way to make a vulgarity.
From “Cao Wei Daihan” to “Sima Dai Wei”, the new dynasty emperor treats the former emperors with Yu Bin, and according to the ancient story, Zen let the two sides Yao and Shun Jun, so Xinjun to the Zen position as the guest of the country. Come and treat: Zen Jun’s book is not a minister, and he is not worshiped. He has a five -o’clock vice car. The suburbs of saving the ancestors can be feasible for the emperor. Although Zen Jun had produced it, he could finally live in the end. But in the Jin Dynasty, after the Jin Dynasty, there was a huge change. Soon after Liu Yu, Liu Yu killed Zen in his Jin Gongdi Sima Devin. After Liu Yu, anyone who suffered a meditation must destroy the whole family of the Zen.
Why is Liu Yu’s precedent for Zen Jun? There is no historical material to prove. I consider whether to analyze from the background of the times and Liu Yu. The gatekeeper of the gatekeeper of the Northern and Southern Dynasties of the Eastern Jin Dynasty and monopolized the regime. Even if the Hanmen -Sini entered the senior management of the rule of the group with military merits, they even became the nineteenth five -year respect, and they still had to share the world with the scholars. Liu Yu rose to Han Wei and came from Wuwu. Because of his low level of cultural level, he was conceded by the taxis represented by the king and Xie. Although he has a high reputation in the north, he has not established enough “Dewang” to obtain Zen Jean in the eyes of the clan. Both Cao and Sima have enough political heritage to operate two or three generations. However, since 404 AD, Liu Yu extinguished Xuan Xuan into the core political stage. By 420, he was the emperor. It is not necessary to operate the word, and Liu Yu’s sons may not be able to control the overall situation like Cao Yu, Sima Shi, and Sima Zhao, so he forced him to have a lifetime in his lifetime. Liu Yu, the emperor, was also caused by the opportunity of history. Due to his weak political foundation, he could not get the strong support of the Gao Men clan. In order to prevent the Jin Emperor from resting, he killed him with expectations.
Although Liu Yu’s Zen Jun, although brutal and bloody, he is limited to Gongyu and has little impact on society. I think the most successful in the Zen generation was Zhao Kuangyin built Song. Chen Qiaoying, which was launched by Zhao Kuangyin, replaced the post -week regime almost without blood. Chen Qiaobing changed, there was not much movement. The army did not kill one person. In the state of stability in society and not disturbing the people’s livelihood, the Emperor Gongxun was in his place.
The “Zen Dai”, a more common paradigm, is worthy of recognition. This is because the “Zen generation” uses a relatively peaceful way to realize the transfer between the regime between the surnames, avoiding the coup. The corpse millions, bleeding. The Zen generation will reduce the social costs such as “levy” without different differential slaughtering and damage to productivity, and Li Min’s death and injuries. What’s more, in the Confucian context, the “Zen” is more in line with the principles of benevolence and etiquette in ancient China.
Historically, Sima Yi has been considered “wolf to look like” before the Wei Dynasty. Is the formation of these rumors related to its replacement?
It is also the E -Ding Ding Revolution. Later generations were very different from Liu Bang who won the world through the “recruitment” and the Sima family who had died through the Zen dynasty. It is also the political myth of the Lord of Kaji. Perhaps Sima’s “three horses” and “wolf care” are far less authoritative as Liu Bang’s “Chi Emperor Cut the White Emperor” and “Dragon and Longyan” Orthodox and persuasive. But “wolf and pattering” may also be another manifestation of imperial power. British scholar Dolf Steinberger pointed out: “Even the usurpers, after capturing power, are often committed to gaining legitimacy for its regime to strengthen their dominance. Worked hard, no matter whether success or not, it reveals the legitimacy criteria in specific social and culture. “I think the manufacturer of” wolf pattering “may be subjective to demonstrate the rationality of Sima’s world, but things and wishes are contrary to their wishes. Objectively, it has led to the stigma of Sima.
Stills of “Sima Yi’s Military Division Alliance”
In fact, there are “wolfs and patrons” in the Han and Wei dynasties. It is not only Sima Yi, but even Zhuge Liang, who is known as the incarnation of wisdom, the model of morality, and the counselor of the loyalty. , Ask Liu Hou Lord to personally pro -political states as soon as possible to get rid of the control of power ministers. However, in “The Three Kingdoms” records that Zhuge Liang is “eight feet long and beautiful”, which seems to be unsatisfactory to the “wolf Gu”, and there is a huge departure. Why does Zhuge Liang’s “wolf and Gu Xiang” rarely know? I think this is very related to “Five Elements”. In the twenty -four history, many historical books have compiled “Five Elements” as an important part of the book. The main theme of “Five Elements” is Hong Yang’s theory of “Heaven and Human induction”, that is, heaven must correspond to personnel, and the “Five Elements” only records the “fulfillment” of it. In the ignored, Zhuge Liang did not replace Liu Chan as the emperor, so there will be no corresponding records of “Five Elements”. In the history book, we found that many rumors, rumors, rumors, nursery rhymes and power ministers, the fate of the emperor, and the general trend of the world were closely related. They reflected the views of the court and the people of the scholars to a certain extent.
Rumors (including rumors that appear in the form of folk and nursery rhymes) should be ubiquitous, and nursery rhymes of the “Five Elements” into the two Han Dynasty should be a small part of the remaining part after the selection and editing. The reason why the historians choose these nursery rhymes is because they are related to major historical events or characters, and the other is the “spirituality” of their “fables”. Nursery rhymes that have not been fulfilled are just rumors, demon words, and rumors. Sima Yi’s “wolf visits” and “three horses and one grooves” are the verification of nursery rhymes. In order to make the nursery rhymes more authoritarian, the historians move the prediction to Cao Cao. Cao Cao and Sima Yi, as heavyweights during the Wei and Jin dynasties, were the monarchs of Zhaoji of the Wei and Jin dynasties. They naturally walked across the rumors circulating on them and passed to future generations.
The positioning of “Wolf Gu” puts Sima Yi into a state of no longer, so this problem must be re -examined. When Sima Yi first stepped into Cao Cao’s shogunate, he was just a trivial literature (literary secretary). How can Cao Cao travel through time and space, as early as decades ago, he noticed that Sima Yi was “heroic”, “wolf Gu Xiang”, and dreamed of “three horses”, and even told Cao Yu in a state of trouble: ” It can be seen that it can be seen that these are some fabrications of Ziyu.
I think the compilation of “Jin Shu” was deeply influenced by the early Tang Dynasty, especially the “system” of “Jin Shu Xuan Di” was written by Tang Taizong. Fraud Xiong guessed had a severe criticism, so it was not ruled out that the historians’ possibility of beautifying and mythical Cao Cao in “Jin Shu Xuandi”. The best way to myth Cao Cao is to make Cao Cao’s talents, and he knows people. He has long aware that Sima Yi has a “wolf look like”. Liu Zhiji believes that a large number of “You Ming Lu” and “Search God” in “Jin Shu” in “Jin Shu” have destroyed the objectivity and authority of Zhengshi, so he has a low evaluation of “Jin Shu”. Essence
When did the Zen generation start slightly? Why is there no such form of power after the Song Dynasty?
The Zen Politics has gradually become slightly micro after the Song Dynasty, and its main reason is that the social soil that generates the power of power no longer exists. From the Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern Dynasties to the Five Dynasties, the biggest threat to the imperial power is the power minister. Once the lord of fainting, or the turmoil of the world, the power minister uses the power of the emperor and the repeated warfare. Tin, the Zen is the emperor. As the Five Dynasties An Zhongrong said: “The emperor, the soldiers are strong and strong, it is better to have a kind of?” From the perspective of the appearance, the Zen generation seems to be the new and old dynasties to hand over the power in peacetime, but it is actually the undercurrent force deterrence. The minister still seizes the power in force, but puts himself on a legal coat in a “Zen Jean” manner.
Yao Wangtai site of Yongji City, Shanxi. Yao Wangtai is said to be a testimony of Yao Shun’s “Zen concession”.
Although the impermanence system was implemented in the Tang Dynasty, the wind of the Shangwu still prevailed. Tang Shiyun “Ning is a centurion, winning a scholar”, which fully reflects the value orientation of heavywurm. Although Zhao Kuangyin, the founding of the Northern Song Dynasty, was born in a general, but because of his transformation of the throne through Chen Qiao’s soldiers, he had a deep understanding of the harmfulness of Wufu, and he would prevent the prevention of tailoring generals as the national policy. It became the “ancestor family method” of the Song people. In the Song Dynasty, a system of civil official governing the country was established, which caused the emperor to fully and effectively grasp the power of military power. From then on, the power minister forced Jiuxin and the king of the king was not likely to implement the Zen generation. Zhu Yuanzhang was abolished in the Ming Dynasty. In short, the imperial power was unprecedented.
Song and Ming dynasties also vigorously strengthened the thoughts of loyalty, so that the entire social and cultural spirit had undergone fundamental changes. The “two monarchs” of the Eastern Han Dynasty and the “no monarch” thoughts in the Wei and Jin dynasties caused scholars to be loyal to the Lord, the Lord, and the old master, and then made the Quan Chen Zen dynasty win the country. Under the influence of the two monarchs, the concept of loyal monarchs during the Wei and Jin dynasties was very weak. Scholars often persuaded “the protagonist” to be the emperor during the turmoil of the world. Cheng Zhuxue, who appeared in the Song Dynasty, referred the concept of Zhongjun to unprecedented heights. Scholars advocate that “loyalty” is the “theorem of the world”. “God teaches you that father and son have relatives, and you use your father and son to have relatives. God teaches you that you are righteous, and you will use the monarch and minister to be righteous, otherwise it will violate the heavens. “In the Song and Ming society, which was derived into the” heaven “of Zhongjun’s concept, the ministers had artifacts and wanted to make great positions.
During the Wei, Jin and Northern and Southern Dynasties, the power ministers of the Canadian nine tin must be sealed, giving several counties and even a state. However, the Tang Dynasty descended, but the country was emptied, but it was not the place. In the Song Dynasty, the five Germans, which were closely connected to the Zen dynasty, ended up, Tu Yan, and Wei Wei’s said gradually declined. Zhao Kuangyin went down, and it was strictly forbidden to take pictures. In the Song Dynasty, the contradiction between Huayi nationality was prominent. This is one of the reasons for the political micro -politics of Zen. Under the comprehensive role of various factors, the Jiuxi system and Zen generation politics that prevailed from the Hanwei to the Sui and Tang dynasties finally withdrew from the stage of history due to losing the carrier of attachment. The Empress Dowager Longyu in the late Qing Dynasty promulgated the book of Zen position and transferred the regime to the Republic of China by peacefully. This is the resurrection of Zen politics in modern history. The reason can be discussed separately.
What is the significance and academic value of the origin, development and evolution of ancient Chinese Zen politics?
Examining the prosperity of Zen political politics can not only reflect the operating trajectory of Chinese imperial power from one side, but also compare it with the easy way of “recruitment”. Although in essence, there is no strict difference in “Zhengbang” and “Zen”. However, there are fewer social turmoil caused by the Zen generation, and the cost of social costs pays less. These are worthy of recognition. In the Song Dynasty, the imperial power strengthened, and the ethnic minorities entered the Central Plains many times in the form of “recruitment”. It was the great destruction of society at that time: a large number of people died, and the productive forces had greatly retreated. In this way, the dynasty cycle must be repeatedly circulated, and it was difficult to jump out. Conversely, if the stories of Chen Qiao, the Chen Bridge of the Han and Wei Dynasties of the Yuan and Qing dynasties, will it help China to get out of the Middle Ages at an early date? Going to globalization? Is it conducive to the transition from farming society to industrialized society as soon as possible? This is a problem that I often consider the politics of Zen generation.