Factory director Zhang Ming. Photo by Zhou Shuyi, Xinhuanet

“— 嗤 ——” In the morning and night, in the life of the shipbuilding craftsman day after day, the sound of rubbing wood often around his ears. Coupled with the workers of each office, the densely ranked giant wood, and the 8 -meter -high wooden boat framework, the whole picture of the “Minglu Shipyard” was put in front of them.

Minglu Shipyard, located on the bank of Huanglong Bay, Tungou Town, Lingao County, Hainan Province. Zhang Ming, the 54 -year -old director of the year, is the 43rd generation inheritor of the 43rd generation of “Linggao Tune -building Guangbo Winning Traditional Handicraft Skills”. It has been engaged in the shipbuilding industry for 33 years. The manufacturing process of Linggao Tower and the “Guangshu” of Guangdong in the Song Dynasty, Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties belonged to the same sect. Lingao Handmade Manufacturing Guangshi has been in the second year of Shaoxing in the Southern Song Dynasty (1132). It has a history of 885 and has been included in Hainan. Provincial Intangible Cultural Heritage Project List.

Fate wants to build a good ship for the country and fishermen

Lingao County is the largest marine fishery county in Hainan Province. It is rich in more than 600 aquatic products such as mackerel, grouper, golden catfish, and shrimp. In 2015, the production of sea catching in Lingao County reached 539,100 tons, accounting for 1/3 of the province’s sea capture output; the county’s total marine and fishery output value was 6.739 billion yuan, accounting for approximately 46.61%of the total economic output value of Lingao County. According to data from the Lingao County Statistics Bureau in 2016, there are about 74,000 fisheries in the county, accounting for 16.6%of the county’s total population. Fishermen’s work at sea, on the one hand, enjoys natural gifts, and on the other hand, she is also threatened by nature. “Lin Gaoxin Zhi” records: “On June 1930 in the lunar calendar in 1930, it was attacked by strong typhoons. Only Xinying Port Safe Village, there were 30 sinking fishing boats, more than 100 people died.” Therefore, a safe, stable, stable Fisheries boats are tantamount to “second life” for fishermen.

The wooden wide ships made by Lin Gao Craftsman, the first tip of the ship type, the darker water, the small beams and the small beams, and have good airworthiness performance and a large battery life. , The vertical strength depends on the keel and the big pound. Since the Southern Song Dynasty, the craftsmanship technology has no drawings and text records. It has been passed down by generations and has continued to this day.

At the age of 21, Zhang Ming began to follow his father to learn how to build ships. Creating a safe, solid and practical big ship is Zhang Ming’s dream. He hopes to improve the shipbuilding skills of the entire village, build a good ship for the country, and build a good ship for fishermen. From the basic steps such as selection of wood, uncleu, lipping keel, habitation, building driving buildings, driving buildings, ash, installation of machines, and layout of water density compartment. At the age of 24, Zhang Ming built his first ship.

Safe, stable, practical, and beautiful became the purpose of Zhang Ming’s shipbuilding, and continued to the operation of Minglu Shipyard. In 2006, Zhang Ming invested in the establishment of a Minglu Shipyard, leading the beach shipbuilding of the town for decades to move towards a standardized shipbuilding workshop. In 2009, it passed the certification of the Ministry of Agriculture in 2009.

Zhang Ming’s father, Zhang Sui, has been studying shipbuilding skills in his life, from sailing to motor boats, from transport boats to fishing boats. In the absence of drawings, Zhang Suizhi’s ships have changed each time. Essence However, limited to tools and technology, the tonnage of the fishing boats is generally only 50-80 tons, which takes one to one and a half years. With the changes in the times, the manufacturing of Linggao Railway Broadcasting has introduced modern means on the basis of inheriting traditional craftsmanship. “Now the shipowners will go to the design institute to draw precise drawings, and the shipbuilding tools will be more advanced than before. It takes four months to build a large 100 -ton ship.” During the 33 years of building the ship, Zhang Ming has been for Qiong Haiki Gate for 33 years. The fishermen have created a large wooden boat of 320 tons, which is currently the highest record of his shipbuilding tonnage.

Big wooden boats that have not been completed in the shipyard. Photo by Zhou Shuyi, Xinhuanet

海南临高:百吨大船人工造 技艺传承近千年

The safety of Linggao Railway Wide Ship is the biggest feature

There are many types of wooden boats for making a hundred -ton -level wooden boat, and 500 processes are required for the shell alone. “Selection of wood is the first step in shipbuilding.” Zhang Ming introduced that it usually takes more than decades of old trees. The traditional fir is mainly fir, because the fir wood is solid and light, the buoyancy can be loaded, and it is full of oil. And the advantages of not easy to rot.

Each piece of wood used for tenon is the traditional shipbuilding tools such as ax, chisel, ink, and handwood diamonds, as well as auxiliary materials such as sawing and hammer. How to make good use of wood to the greatest extent and solve the various shapes and wooden boards for shipbuilding is a problem that every shipbuilder must think about. Zhang Ming said that according to the different wood, his use of wood can reach 60-80%.

Asked about the biggest features of their own wooden boats, Zhang Ming and craftsmen both answered without thinking -safety. Zhang Ming checked the details around the unsuccessful wooden boat. He said, “The big ship looks strong and elegant, and the keel is indispensable. We can install the beams and horizontal firewood on the keel, and then fix the big pound on the side of the hull. After the skeleton is set up, then the ship plate is installed to form a complete hull. “Between the material and the material, the trapezoidal tenon mouth should be connected. The holes should be cut between the plate and the plate, and the screws are fixed.” After the hull is initially formed, the internal water dens is designed. If the keel is like a human spine, the water cabin is like a human heart. Zhang Ming squatted on the top of the cabin and pointed to a cabin room in the hull. The buoyancy does not sink. “He said that the design was a peaceful symbol for fishermen to the sea.

Safety is also reflected in many small details. An old craftsman picked out two from the scattered ship nails, one straight, and a tail with a hook. “This is straight nails and tatches, which is used to connect with wooden boards.” The nail connecting the wooden board should be nail, about 4 cm nails. The tattoo is more suitable for use on the boat. Because the tail hooks on the wooden board, it will be exposed to the air, and the long -term corrosion of the water will cause the wooden board to collapse. “Some unspecified boatmen use hooks regardless of large boats and boats. Those not firm wooden boards will slowly scatter after a long time. It is a trivial matter on the shore. It is a big deal in the sea.”

“When the hull and the boat board are all settled, the next step is to be ash.” The old craftsman took off a jar of mortar. “This is the preparation of tung oil, threaded, and brown coconut shreds. It can play a good waterproof effect in the seam of the boat. If this process is done well, it has a vital role in the steadyness of the ship and the sealing of the water denscase. “

Determined my ancestors’ skills must be passed on

海南临高:百吨大船人工造 技艺传承近千年

Zhang Ming said that from 2006 to 2009, it was the heyday of Lin Gaoming. The county made hundreds of ships a year. Eight, Oriental, Sanya, and even north to Guangxi Beihai, Guangdong Wushi and other places. “At that time, it was not an exaggeration to say that one of the three wooden boats in Hainan Province was manufactured by Linggao, and 80 % of the ships made from Lingao came from Minglu Shipyard.”

But to this day, people who insist on making wooden boats are slowly becoming less, and only 40 to 60 -year -old craftsmen are still having a more mature craft. Zhang Ming admits that the main reason is that the selection of wooden boats will inevitably affect the ecology. In order to protect forest resources, the state has introduced a series of subsidy policies in recent years to encourage steel -making and glass reinforcement boats. Although the performance of water -resistant water -resistant and corrosion -resistant of steel boats and glass fiber -fims is not comparable to wooden boats with high -quality wood, the annual maintenance fee will be a large amount of expenses, and many shipmers have changed the direction of shipbuilding.

In addition, the number of workers who go to sea now has greatly reduced, and it is difficult for many shipowners to find a team of fixed teams to open fishing on time, so they are unwilling to invest in large ships. Big ships that can carry big storms and go to the distant sea are gradually replaced by small couple ships. Zhang Ming said that the couple customized a small fishing boat, which was fishing at offshore of 12-13 meters, self-sufficient, and small risks. However, the orders of this small couple ship are also full year by year, because the long -term use of wooden boats can reach 20 to 25 years, and the shipowner base of the family -based unit is basically fixed. Such orders are difficult to increase in the short term.

From the order of more than 50 to one year to only ten or twenty ships in one year, the number of orders for Minglu Shipyard is declining. In the face of such a situation, Zhang Ming often repeatedly considers his dreams and reality. He said that the shipbuilding based on wood is the end of the ecological and environmental protection. However, the precious craftsmanship left by the ancestors should be carried forward. So in the wooden boat, as long as there are orders, he will pick up. “Even if the” shape “changed one day, let the ‘God’ endless.”

The technology is invisible, and Zhang Ming also pondered what he wanted to leave. In the old house in the town, some wood and stone tools created by their ancestors in the era of underdeveloped technology. Players, groovers, wooden hand drills, wood split knives, hands plane, hand tug -of -hand … These tools with time marks carry the wonderful thoughts of the old boats.

In 2009, Lingao County hosted a construction exhibition with a construction of a wide range of buildings to display 58 buildings with various shapes. Zhang Ming plans to develop shipbuilding molds, combined with the craftsmanship and technologies left by the ancestors, to create a corresponding mold for the shipbuilding tools used in each age, and strive to exhibit with the county non -heritage protection center. (Zhou Shuyi)