Source: China Military Network WeChat Public Account Author: Xu Ping
After the outbreak of the Anti -Japanese War in 1937, the KMT and the Communist Party cooperated for the second time.
To commemorate the 80th anniversary of the establishment of the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army, China Military Network WeChat specially launched a series of experts to introduce the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army from different perspectives.
After the Red Army adapted from the Eighth Route Army (the 18th Army) and the New Fourth Army, the troops, institutional settings, personnel equipment and clothing, and logo were basically the same as the National Revolutionary Army.
A Eighth Route Army in Yan’an is training.
The style of military uniforms is the same as the National Revolutionary Army
The main varieties of the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army are military hats, military clothes, military pants, military coats, logo symbols, etc. Military caps and cotton hats. Common single caps are straight hat walls, plane round caps, arc -shaped hats and hat fences, the front end of the hat is slope -shaped, and the back end is uniform. The two small buttons are combined with two small buttons on both ends of the hat, which is a circular metal hat emblem (the National Revolutionary Army Hat Eckless) with a “blue sky and white day” pattern in front of the hat wall. The brim of the cotton hat is similar to a single hat. The cap is usually tied to the top of the hat. It can be put down in winter. The lower end can reach the neck, and it can be tied to the neck with a buckle and rope to play a role in the neck and ear protection.
Eighth Route Army Single Hat and Cotton Hat.
The Eighth Route Army was served as a female warrior.
The troops are divided into summer clothes and winter clothes, and the system is the same. The same system at all levels is the same. For lapels, there are five buckles on the placket, and four open bags have bags. The bottom of the two pockets above is round. The two are square; there is a buttons in the center of the bag; the mouth of the two pockets above is flat with the second new New New New, and the pocket mouth of the two pockets below the fifth new button is flat. The soldiers’ clothes are basically the same as the officer service. The only difference is that the soldiers have a cloth on the left and right coats. The length of the army coat is “two -foot five” in length regardless of size. I often see some photos of the Eighth Route Army and female soldiers wearing long and large military uniforms, like short coats. This is because of the “two -foot five” with different size numbers. Of course, when the conditions are good, they also make short military uniforms for little soldiers and female soldiers. Wearing a white -bottomed blue -shaped rectangular cloth armband in the left arm of the army. The Eighth Route Army has “Eighth Route”, “Eighteen Group Army”, “18GA”, and the New Fourth Army is “New Fourth Army” or “N4A”.
The Eighth Route Army Small Soldier was wearing a hypertrophic “two feet and five”.
Military pants, cadres are western -style pants, with a side bag on each side of the pants, and there is a watch on the right side of the bag. Soldiers are improved Chinese pants.
Army coat. There are two types of officers and soldiers, lapels, double -breasted buckles, long clothes and one -half between the knees and the back of the feet. There is a dark bag on both sides of the waist. The officer coat has a bag cover, and the soldier coat has no bag. Behind the clothes, there are two interconnected horizontal belts, two buttons, and the band -end stacked for about 12 cm. There is a slit in the middle of the horizontal belt. The officer’s coat is a long slit, folded on both sides of the slit, and 3 buttons on the top; the soldier coat is short, without folding, no buckle. But in fact, there are very few soldiers coats. Usually, there are only a few or a class. It belongs to the public. The officer’s coat is not everyone who can send it.
The Eighth Route Army, the New Fourth Army military uniforms, military caps.
During the entire War of Resistance Against Japan, the style of the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army uniforms was generally fixed, and most troops basically followed the military uniforms of the National Revolutionary Army. In 1944, the winter clothes began to be divided into 1, 2, 3 and special number, and paired with height. In 1945, it was divided into male military uniforms and women’s uniforms. After the “Southern Anhui Incident” in 1941, some troops of the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army canceled the blue sky and emblem on the hat.
There is a big difference between the color of the military uniform and the material
We now see some Anti -Japanese War film and television films. Some people say that this is wrong, or that wrong. In fact, both colors are indeed. Due to the limits of conditions, the color and materials of the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army are large. Because the environment of the Anti -Japanese War was very difficult, each anti -Japanese base area could only make military uniforms on the spot according to its own conditions, and the fabrics and chromosomal agents in each base area were different. The colors and materials of the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army cannot be forced to be consistent, and they are generally determined by major strategic zones. Military uniforms are mostly green gray and grass yellow. The military uniforms of the Eighth Route Army Headquarters and the Jinji Luyu Military Region are gray; troops of Shaanxi -Gansu -Ningxian District are divided into gray and blue; Essence Generally speaking, the early stage of the Anti -Japanese War was mostly gray, and the later period was changed to earthy yellow. For example, the military uniform of the Eighth Route Army’s 20th Division was gray. After 1940, because the sulfide dye could not be bought in the enemy occupied area, yellow dyes could be extracted from plants such as locust tree seeds. For yellow.
Military uniform dyes are mainly based on local materials. Gray is mostly derived from rubber shells and smoke ash, and yellow is mainly derived from coptohnia, Huang Qin, and Huaizi. The founding general Wang Xinting recalled: “At that time, we raised white cloth, but when we could not buy dyes, we adopted soil methods to dye the cloth with locust flower to make military clothes. A new warrior got a new set of clothes, worn very spiritually, and reached the troops neatly. “
In the summer of 1941, the Eighth Route Army’s first 29th division also issued an order to collect Huaizi in the name of the division leader Liu Bocheng and the political commissar Deng Xiaoping. With the chief of a division, this order is unique in the history of the world military uniform.
In 1938, the Eighth Route Army ’s master Liu Bocheng (right) and Deng Xiaoping’ s political committee.
In 1944, the Logistics Department of the Shandong Military Region “Regulations on the System of the Clothing” mentioned that “the colors of military uniforms are uniform, requiring protective colors, grass green in summer, and yellow or gray in winter. Tao: On September 5, 1944, in the Guojiayuan of Linqi Town, Linxian County, Henan Province, the Eighth Route Army’s Western Henan Anti -Japanese Independent Detachment held a detachment and advanced to the western Henan Expense Conference. “Due to economic difficulties, coupled with several units from the troops, the detachment does not have uniform military uniforms. Several colors of gray, apricot yellow, yellow, and green are all made of soil. Or the three eight types, each person is carrying a cowhide magazine seized from the Japanese devil’s hand, gathered on the playground with a shaking manner. “
Military materials are mainly coarse cloth (soil cloth), and there are also some fine cloth (foreign cloth). In addition, there are still military uniform materials such as hair, hair, skin, etc. After 1943, the military consumption of the troops of the Shaanxi -Gansu -Ningxian area was uniform. The single clothes were “semi -ocean cloth”, the shirt was “pure ocean cloth”, and the winter clothes were “pure earth cloth”. In addition to using thick and fine cloth as fabrics, the Eighth Route Army Headquarters and the 139th Division also made leather short clothes in 1944. In order to facilitate the hidden operation of the Eighth Route Army in the enemy occupied area at night, the Hebei -China Anti -Japanese Base Land carried out the “Dog Movement” in the winter of 1939. The Supply Department of the Jizhong Military Region acquired 600,000 dog skin at one time, processed into leather coats and leather vests, and sent it to it to it. force. After wearing the soldiers, the soldiers sang, “The dog skin is good, the dog’s meat is fragrant.
Wearing a rough military uniform and wearing the Eighth Route Army soldiers with the “18GA” (Eighteenth Army) armband.
There are many ways for military uniforms
During the War of Resistance Against Japan, due to the restrictions on the situation and economic conditions of the military struggle, the clothing sources of the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army were mainly solved by various strategic zone forces.
Kuomintang government supply
In the early days of the War of Resistance Against Japan, according to the agreement reached by the KMT and the Communist Party, the Kuomintang government had distributed some weapons and ammunition and military supplies to the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army. In August 1937, when the Eighth Route Army was adapted to 45,000 sets, cotton military clothes, and military demand such as hats, belts, leg tie, hanging bags, and military blankets. When the Eighth Route Army was passing by Taiyuan in North China, Yan Xishan supplemented some ammunition, cotton clothes and cotton shoes. In 1938, hair costs and some materials. From 1939 to 1940, the Kuomintang government reduced its supply, only the fabrics of cotton clothes and sewing clothing, and did not fulfill the promise. The supply was completely stopped in November 1940.
The troops are raised by themselves
A large part of the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army were settled by each unit by themselves. For example, the Eighth Route Army’s 120th Division, under the leadership of the Division of He Long and Guan Xiangying, went to northwestern Jin from Shaanxi on September 8, 1937 to launch a guerrilla war behind the enemy. After winter, more than 10,000 soldiers could not wear cotton clothes. In order to ensure the winter of the army, Guan Xiangying’s political commissar personally came forward, and took the Propaganda Minister, the Supply Minister and the Junxian Section Chief to work in Linxian, Shanxi. With the help of the Linxian Chamber of Commerce, I temporarily borrowed 10,000 cotton clothes and 7000 quilts 7000 cotton quilts. Twenty -,000 pairs of cotton shoes, finally solved the winter clothes of the army, and spent the first cold winter after the Anti -Japanese War. The team was expanded after the team of the 11th and fiveth divisions. In order to solve the problem of the army’s winter clothes, the newly recovered Shanxi Lingqiu, Guangling, Hunyuan, Yangyuan, and Hebei Yiyuan, Yixian and other counties and towns to acquire cotton and cloth. Two months, the problem of troops cotton clothes was solved.
The army is produced by the army’s service factory
In order to solve the production and supply of serving, the Eighth Route Army and the Military Regions of the New Fourth Army have been built with service factories, textile factories, shoe factories, etc., and undertaken the production tasks of the clothing. Some of them are self -sufficient and some are self -sufficient. In 1939, the Eighth Route Army Headquarters was served by the Eighth Route Army, which can produce 400 sets of stand -in clothes and 200 sets of cotton clothes daily; the weaving factories weave 200 horses a month; the dyeing factories dyeing 50-100 horses. Before 1939, the Eighth Route Army arranged 79 military factories such as serving, textiles, shoes, and 4,600 military workers. The clothing manufacturer has developed rapidly since 1939. By the end of the Anti -Japanese War, the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army founded more than 400 factories, with about 40,000 employees, and about 9,000 main equipment, which played an important role in ensuring that the troops were served.
The Jinchaji Military Region was served as the front line of the Eighth Route Army.
The support of the local government and the people
The border zone and base government have made great contributions to solving the military’s military needs. For example, the government of Shaanxi -Gansu -Ningzhong District decided that in September 1942, the supply of one -scale leadership on the supply of the service was put on the spinning factories and service factories of the central government and the army to successfully complete the production tasks of the second half of the year. A total of 100,889 uniforms, 17,537 units of shirts, 106361 pairs of single shoes, 31790 sets of cotton clothes, 54838 pairs of cotton shoes. In 1943, the clothing manufacturing capabilities of the border area increased significantly, producing 120,000 sets of clothing for the army, 20,000 dyed cloth, and 200,000 kg. After two years of hard work, the self -sufficiency rate of more than 70 % has basically ensured the supply of the troops.
The people of the Anti -Japanese Base, especially the majority of women, have made great contributions to the sewing of the Eighth Route Army and the New Four Army. According to the Eighteenth Army Logistics Department and the Field Supply Department of the 18th Army on August 2, 1942, “Instructions to the Sewing Works to the Supply of the Army”, “the resolution of military shoes should basically rely on the production of local masses.” Zhen Ziming, the director of the original Fourth Army’s directly under the supply office, wrote in a memories of the article: In terms of clothing supply, the troops mainly establish a factory production by themselves. However, a large number of shoes are rescued by local women to mobilize the masses to provide the troops in the name of comfort forces.
The people of the border area sent military shoes for the Eighth Route Army.
From 1938 to 1939, the people of Shanghai carried out mass support for the New Fourth Army, organizing righteous performances and sale, raising hundreds of thousands of yuan, some of which bought medicines, and some bought about 50,000 sets of military jackets needed. The cloth has strongly solved the problem of treating the new four military generals. In the winter of 1938, the Chinese Vocational Education Society “translated and reported” and other units mobilized the patriotic people of the business community to donate enthusiastically, raising more than 3,000 cloths and more than 20,000 pairs of glue shoes to transport the southern Anhui Ministry. In May 1939, defending the Chinese Alliance in friends and aid agencies in various countries and the aid agencies to raise 20,000 blankets for the New Fourth Army wounded. Hong Kong Patriotic compatriots also sent cotton vests, leather coats, rubber shoes, blankets and other supplies to the Shaanxi -Gansu -Ningxin troops. These donations, the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army under the difficult conditions are like sending charcoal in the snow, alleviating the difficulty of being served.
The troops do their own to solve the clothing
After 1940, due to the “sweeping” of the Japanese invaders’ steps on the Japanese base area, the economic difficulties in the base areas, and the troops were tight. The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China called on the entire party and the entire army to “do it by themselves and eat enough food” to carry out a vigorous production movement. The soldiers themselves spin, weaving, dyeing, and military shoes. According to Ye Jizhuang, the Minister of the Supply Department of the Eighth Route Army: “… the serving is sewn by himself. Each person per person is one or two sets of single clothes, a set of cotton clothes, and some also send them to shirts, hats, legs, bullet bags, dry grain bags and dry grain bags and dry grain bags and dry grain bags and dry grain bags and dry grain bags and dry grain bags and dry grain bags and dry grain bags and dry grain bags. If you are served, you can also replenish the shortcomings. Although it is not neat, it can also be guaranteed. The rest of the shoes and socks are also self -sufficient. For general. “
Eighth Route Army cadres and warrior spinning lines.
The cadres and soldiers of the Eighth Route Army were sewn cotton and quilts by themselves.
On June 24, 1940, the Political Department of the 129th Division issued the “Order to Call for the Movement of Self -Making Sweats in Each Ministry”, which proposed that our slogan should be “sweaters, wool socks, hairy gloves, each person is the same”, “one person weaves by yourself” Wear “” well woven if you woven well “,” Fast woven “. The troops were installed by self -sufficient rates year by year. For example, the 120th division was installed in 1941 8.5%, 12.5%in 1942, 21%in 1943, and 30%in 1944.
Take the enemy
During the War of Resistance Against Japan, the battlefield seized was an important source of the Eighth Route Army, the new Fourth Army weapons and equipment, and the military demand. Part of the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army were installed to use the battlefield to seize it, take it to the enemy, and supplement themselves. Guan Dajie, the first and five divisions, and a heavy team of the Japanese Army Trumaki Division, seized a large number of loading and other materials. The military coat alone was enough for one person for each person. In the winter of 1941, the Shandong Military Region Railway guerrillas were ordered to intercept the enemy’s transport trains and seized 18,000 ocean cloths, 800 sets of military uniforms and military blankets, and filled more than 200 boats.
The Eighth Route Army’s officers and soldiers wore the woolen coat of the Japanese army.
At the beginning of 1943, after the Battle of the Third Division of the New Fourth Army in Funing County, northern Jiangsu, the soldiers seized by the soldiers took photos before the loot.
Military uniforms are low, but it is difficult to guarantee
During the War of Resistance Against Japan, due to the division of the base are divided by the enemy, the pre -installed standards of the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army were mainly formulated by major strategic zones in accordance with factors such as local economic conditions and the war environment. Many second -level military regions and even military divisions also formulated standards. The Eighth Route Army Headquarters is located in the Taihang Mountains and implements the same standard as the Two Nine Divisions. The standards of the states of the Shaanxi -Gansu -Ningbian District and the party, political, and school members are formulated by the border area government. The relative conditions of the Jinchaji Military Region and the Shandong Military Region are better, and the troops are slightly higher than that of other military regions. The supply standards of the New Fourth Army forces are formulated by various divisions, and the standards are generally consistent.
Eighth Route Army soldiers who put on new troops.
In general, due to the backward economy of the base, coupled with the enemy’s destruction and natural disasters, the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army were installed at a low level during the War of Resistance Against Japan, and they could barely maintain the minimum needs of troops to fight and live. Generally, each person sends 2 single clothes, 1 set of cotton clothes, 1 single hat and cotton hat, about 4 pairs of shoes (cloth shoes), and some also send 2 pairs of straw shoes. The shirts and socks are not allowed, and when you have a good time, you will not post it when you are in trouble. Coats and quilts are luxury, not everyone can send it. Except for the Jizhong Military Region with good conditions, the coats and quilts are issued, and other military regions cannot reach them. The coat is generally issued by the cadres. The soldiers are issued proportionally. For example, the 120th Division and the Jinsui Military Region sent 1 coat every 10 people in 1941. The conditions were better in 1943, and it was changed to 1 per person. In addition, there are towels, leg tie, belt, hanging bags, rice bags, etc., which are not issued every year.
A optimistic and proud small eight road is ready to set off, wearing a “two -foot five” wearing long and knee, with towels, hanging bags, kettles, water cups, rice bags, etc.
Even such low standards can be guaranteed. Standards return to standards, can it be said that it can be achieved. According to the Anti -Japanese veteran Song Shu division (at the time was the 23rd and second battalion soldiers in the Jizhong Military Region), “When we were about to get in winter in 1939, we changed into cotton clothes. They were all gray military uniforms. Well, the lines are thick, thick, but not strong. Everyone has a cotton hat, a military uniform, and a cotton coat. This cotton coat is not full, there are only three or five people in a class. Send a quilt. There is a collar on the quilt. When the standing of the venue, open the quilt and wear a strap on the body to prevent cold. Anyway, this cold -proof thing can be supported for a while. “Because of the insufficient supply of shoes and socks,” Therefore, “Therefore,” Therefore, “therefore,” Therefore, “therefore,” therefore, “therefore In the anti -‘sweeping battle, the soldiers’ barefoot combat became a phenomenon that was unhappy. Because the battle shoes and socks were not solved well, it greatly increased the difficulty of the action on the battlefield, which affected the soldiers of the soldiers. The development of the enemy’s spirit. “This is still the case with good conditions, and other troops can be imagined.
In order to save, sometimes it is necessary to extend the duration of clothing. For example, the 129th Division stipulated in 1943, “Any new cotton and leather jackets of the new winter last year must be used to sew it with trousers for one year. There are no excuses … “Sun Yi, the founding of the president of the Anti -University Second School, recalled:” We are wearing yellow -green rough clothing. Every year, a cotton coat, a single dress, in the spring, the cotton clothes are removed from cotton. The ‘clip clothes’, in the winter, put on cotton into cotton and cotton clothes. In the severe winter, teachers and students are thin and frozen at night. , Make a grass mattress. “
In mid -August 1945, the Eighth Route Army Shandong Military Region Binhai and the Luzhong Military Region formed the Linyi battle. The picture shows the sharp -knife warrior who entered the city of Linyi.
Hu Yanliang, the former Second Division of the New Fourth Army Division, recalled: “In December 1939, the winter clothes had not yet settled. Zhang Yunyi commanded that we had no money to make cotton clothes, and asked me to go to Hu clothes (that is, Liu Shaoqi) to withdraw money. I brought 600 from him. Yuan made a cotton clothes. In April and May 1940, the cadres and soldiers teared to remove the cotton in the cotton coat as a coating. The first single suit was sent until the Dragon Boat Festival. There is still no way to post it. The soldiers only have one suit and not replaced. The summer soldier went to the river to take a bath, washed the clothes on the river beach, and waited for the clothes to get ashore.
At that time, not to mention ordinary soldiers, the commander of the army and chairman of the Central Military Commission Mao Zedong also had only one set of cotton pants. In the winter of 1939, Xiao Jinguang, commander of the Yan’an Left -behind Corps, was ordered to come to Chairman Mao’s residence Yangjialing. When Xiao Jinguang entered the house, Chairman Mao was still lying on the quilt on the quilt on the cotton. Xiao Jinguang knew that Chairman Mao usually worked at night and took a break in the morning. At this time, I was still on the puppet in the afternoon and thought he was sick, and asked, “Chairman, where are you uncomfortable, do you want me to ask the hospital to see it?” Chairman Mao smiled and pointed at the firewall. The wet cotton trousers said, “My only one cotton pants were washed, where I got up in bed! I will bare buttocks.” Xiao Jinguang immediately said that he sent a set of cotton pants and was resolutely rejected by Chairman Mao. Essence
This is the leader of hundreds of thousands of party members and troops!
Not only that, Mao Zedong wore a set of white washing or patching military uniforms in Yan’an. Everyone watched it and persuaded him to change a new set of new troops, but he was rejected by him. Once, the comrades took him a new set of new troops. After Mao Zedong discovered, he forced everyone to return the new army uniforms. Still wearing old military uniforms that have been worn for four or five years. Do you know how many patchs are there on the old military uniform? A guardian counted, large and small, a total of 18 yuan!
There are such commanders and such an army, how can there be an endless truth?
Except for Mao Zedong, I wonder which other army commanders have worn patching pants?
Because the Eighth Route Army, especially the front -line combat troops, was very worn, and the weapons and equipment were rude, and they were scorned by the Japanese and the Kuomintang army as “poor eight roads” and “Tu Ba Road”. “Poor Eight Roads”, the three words said the hardships of the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army at that time against the enemy’s struggle.
Yes, they are “poor eight roads”, and they are even more “Shenba Road” that makes the enemy’s wind. They are the real Chinese backbone!
New Fourth Army soldiers who are ready to go. The style and color of their clothes, shoes and hats are not uniform, but they have a serious look and fighting spirit, showing a spirit of fighting in the front!
(Author is an expert in military history)
Produced by China Military Network WeChat (zgjw_81)
Author: Xu Ping
Edit: Lu Jinlu
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