The royal meal is the diet enjoyed by the emperor. In ancient Chinese courts, the flavor characteristics of each dynasty were different, but one thing was recognized, that is, the emperors of the Chinese dynasties attached great importance to the desires of the appetite. With the supreme status and the power of the arbitrarily, they have made famous chefs in all parts of the world, gathered in the world’s four -way food and beautiful drink, forming a luxurious and exquisite royal meal flavor characteristics. From the early slave society to the long feudal era, the rulers’ pursuit of taste is often higher than sound and color. In the content of material desires, diet enjoyment occupies the main position and let the emperor eat and drink well. This is not only the responsibility of the royal chef, but also a breakthrough of the courtiers to please the emperor. The palace royal meal is constantly new and surprising with such historical pace. On the night of the 11th night of Qianlong in 1784: Duck stewed duck hot pot, bird’s nest fat chicken shredded, duck waist mouth mushrooms, pot roasted ducks, winter bamboo shoots stir -fried chicken, stall eggs, steamed chicken deer tails, passion duck duck sauce It is like a small steamed bun, duck stuffing buns, chicken filling dumplings. After this meal, it is estimated that when you see chickens and ducks, you will be crazy, and you are too fat, without any diet. It can be seen that even Qianlong’s royal meal is not as wonderful as future generations.
Royal meals of each dynasty
Wei and Jin Royal Food: The Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern Dynasties are a special period of splitting and turbulence in Chinese history, and the integration of the culture of various ethnic groups. In terms of catering culture, the food habits of people of all ethnic groups are intertwined in the Central Plains region, which greatly enriches the palace royal meals, such as large barbecue and meat in Xinjiang, roasted goose and fish in Fujian and Guangdong. middle. In addition, because the nomadic people in the Northwest lived in the Central Plains, they not only changed the history of the Han people who did not learn about breastfeeding, but also added a lot of new content to the flavor of the palace royal meal.
The Tang Dynasty Royal meal: The Tang Dynasty royal meal was not only very rich, but also very innovative. A banquet was held in the court of the Tang Dynasty. Tang Gong’s royal meal not only has a large scale, but also has many types of rice dumplings. The name and luxury of the royal meals are unprecedented.
The Song Dynasty Royal meal: The court of the court of the Song Dynasty was very different. It is generally believed that the early Northern Song Dynasty to the middle of the Northern Song Dynasty was relatively simple, and later from the Southern Song Dynasty, it was more luxurious.
Yuan Dynasty Royal meal: The court of the Yuan Dynasty was dominated by Mongolian flavor and was full of exotic mood. Among them, mutton accounts for a large proportion. The palace royal meal is very complicated. In addition to Mongolian cuisine, it is compatible with Han, Women’s, Western Regions, India, Arabia, Turkey, and some European nations.
The Ming Dynasty Royal meal: The flavor of the court of the Ming Dynasty emphasized the timing of drinking and the time of the order of drinking. During this period, Nanwei Cai Point sang the protagonist in the royal meal. Since Hongxi, the proportion of Beiwei has gradually increased in the Ming Palace royal meal, and mutton has become delicious in the palace.
Royal meal of the Qing Dynasty: The court of the Qing Dynasty has reached its peak in Chinese history. Royal meal not only uses expensive materials, but also focuses on the shape of the pupa. Luxury fees and emphasis on courtesy. Although this is the common point of the royal meals of the past, the Qing Dynasty Royal Food performed particularly in these two aspects. The flavor structure of the Qing Palace is mainly composed of Manchu, Lu cuisine and Huaiyang cuisine. The kitchen is very particular about the style of the dishes. In color, texture, taste, and nutritional aspects, they emphasize the same coordination of each other. There are many names of the Qing Palace Royal Banquet, but the size of the thousands of banquets is the largest, the largest in the row, and the most expensive.
Royal meal management agency
The court royal meal is managed by two huge management agencies, one is the internal affairs government, the other is Guanglu Temple, and the internal government is the institution in charge of the royal court affairs of the Qing Dynasty. The income and expenditure of the property, as well as the cost of the eunuch of the palace. The “Royal Tea Dining Room” and “Guanzuan Defense Management Office” under the Internal Affairs House are institutions that specialize in managing emperors and palace diets.
The so -called “Royal Tea Room”, which is divided into tea rooms, tea rooms and dining rooms, each with its own heads and chiefs, responsible for daily diet in the palace, and also contracted part of the court banquet. Three, 20 chefs. In addition, the Yushayufang has later added official positions such as Zhang Jing, pen style and principal, making this institution more and more complete.
In the thirty -six years of Qianlong, the “Archive Room” was added to the Royal Tea dining room to manage various dietary files, and later added a pen style to record the dietary matters of the emperor, the queen, concubine, and palace.
In the thirty -five years of Jiaqing, a tea dining room was added in Shoukang Palace. The diets of the emperor and concubines are falling, so what about the prince? The prince is another special dining room and tea room. In the Yuanmingyuan, the Royal Garden of the Summer Palace also have a separate dining room to ensure that the emperor does not delay the meal when he visits the garden, it is called “garden dining room”. In addition, in the palace in Rehe, Luohe and other places, there are “walking in the royal dining room”. The team, then the emperor will not be unable to eat because of the fortune.
According to the “Old Sentences of the Sun”, after ten years of Shunzhi, the tea dining room was in the east of Zhonghe Temple, and after the 13th year of Qianlong, it was changed to the Royal Tea Room with the East Library of Jian Ting. Here The mentioned royal tea room does not include the dining room library, inner dining room, tea room duty and clear tea rooms. First of all, the restaurant is not far from the rock tea dining room, and it is next to the rock tea dining room. Secondly, in the inner dining room, in the fifteenth year of Qianlong, in the inner right door, the eunuchs prepared the dining room of the royal meal. After the Royal Food is made through the Royal Tea dining room in Zhonghe Temple, it will be delivered here. Moreover, in order to facilitate the emperor to eat, the dining room silver library is also set here. Then there is the value of the royal tea room. The tea sent to the emperor should ensure the appropriate temperature. Therefore, the value of the rock tea house cannot be too far away from the emperor’s daily life or handling government affairs. During the Kangxi reign, the Royal Tea Room was located in the northeast of the Qianqing Palace, and opened the three -tier room in the east of the Qianqing Palace as a tea house on duty. There was also Emperor Kangxi’s “Royal Tea Room”. Finally, let’s introduce the geographical location of the Qing tea room. In the “Qing Gaozong Record”, it once recorded: “Yonglang and other played. On the 11th of this month, the tea house and the fruit house in the Xihua Gate were delayed. Musical instruments are mostly burned. “This is a fire that occurred in the 55th year of Qianlong. From the records in the book, we learned the location of the tea house during the Qianlong period.
The institutional setting of the Royal Tea Dining Room
The royal tea dining room is mainly composed of the royal dining room, the royal tea room and its subsidiaries. Tea houses do not only need to serve the emperor alone, but are responsible for the production of drinks including the emperor, the concubine of the harem, and the ministers who enter the house to work. There are clear tea rooms and Mongolian tea rooms under the tea room. The beverages provided are mainly tea and milk tea. Among them, the production of milk tea is responsible for the Mongolian tea house. In addition to “brewing fruit, making tea soup, and burden of water”, the tea room must also be responsible for making milk cakes. At the same time, the tea room should also be responsible for the tea of the cabinet and the guards in Taihe.
The dining room, as the name suggests, is responsible for meals. The dining room is divided into internal dining rooms and outer dining rooms, and there are guard dining rooms and prince dining rooms. In the 61st year of Kangxi, in order to take care of the daily diet of the ministers in the palace, the emperor set up a guard dining room. Raw materials such as meat and vegetables that needed to be used in the dining room were distributed daily by the inner dining room. In the fifteenth year of Qianlong, the dining room was changed to a outer dining room. It was mainly responsible for the daily examples of the emperor and the concubines, the princes, and Fujin, and the ministers. Later, the palace was set up in the dining room for the prince for the daily diet dedicated to the prince.
The restaurant library mainly plays a role in storage and storage ingredients. The dining room also includes meat rooms, dried meat warehouses and silver glory. The difference between the meat house and the dried meat library lies in “the meat house is creamy, the dried meat library is used to use the cream and the vegetables and vegetables.” At that time, the meat house was not just pork, mutton, etc., and the meat stored in it was very rich. Such as deer, crickets, yellow sheep, wild boars, bears, miscellaneous fish, catfish, geese, tree chicken and so on. In the dry meat library, there are meat products such as chiers, sink, pork, salted fish, and other meat products, as well as bird’s nest, milk oil, milk wine, yam, noodles, lily and other objects. The silver library is mainly responsible for storing the gold and silver tableware and tea utensils used in the daily feeding of the emperor. The royal dietary device is roughly divided into three types: bowls, soup bowls and plates. They will be paired with different dishes.
“Yu Tea Dining Room” file
The court diet of the Qing Dynasty was a typical representative of China’s four thousand years of feudal national court food culture. The dietary scale, etiquette system, management model, cultural accumulation, etc. of the court of the court of the Qing Dynasty surpassed any dynasty before it. An important feature of the Qing Dynasty court food culture is that it has preserved about 200 million words of dietary records- “Royal Tea Dietary” file. The archives of the “Yu Tea Fang” archives are 5,347, and they are organized into 85 volumes.
The main part of the “Royal Tea Dietary” file in the Qing Dynasty is the “Meal List” that records the daily diet and related affairs of the emperor and the dietary degree of diet, the emperor’s reward and various dietary materials under the palace below the queen queen queen palace Waiting for “Bottom File”. “Meal List” is the basis for the daily meal of the emperor of the main meal, that is, the “general manager” of the royal dining room. The so -called “basis” refers to the “hands -on” (the manager of the royal meal is recorded into the royal view to ask the emperor to ask for the meal book); after the “Hand 掐” is determined by the Royal Lan Qin, the “Meal List” is prepared to prepare for the preparation The basis for cooking for meals, and the preparation post after cooking. The rules of the text of the “bottom stall” are leaving a large heaven at the beginning. The heavenly part of the heaven records the dining requirements and the actual recording of the meal after the emperor reads the “hands”. “Mealing Delivery” daily, write with brush brush with woolen grass paper, 40 cm long and 23 cm wide. The “Diet Pilea” is binding a volume every month, and the edge of the left end is twisted. The cover also uses the same specifications of wool -edge grass paper, and the workbook is on the left side of the year. “Meal List” is the accurate record of the daily daily food of the emperor. “Meal List” shows that the daily food system of the emperor is composed of two meals and morning snacks, and four meals at night. The meal used is clearly recorded. Emperor’s four meals daily. The emperor’s varieties in each meal are recorded and are strictly examples.
After the Manchu entered the Central Plains, the Qing Palace Royal Food, which experienced three different stages of evolution in the early stages, mid -term, and late stage. The Qianlong dynasty was in the middle stage, and it was a period when the Qing Dynasty’s royal meal system was more complete. The Qing Palace Royal Food File, which has been preserved so far, has more than one -third of the Qianlong dynasty’s files, and the Qianlong dynasty file is retained to “64 years of Qianlong”. Total 112 years. During the Qianlong period, the court’s dietary raw materials were basically the mainland. Beast bird bases hunting for hunting in deer, 狍, 凫, and 雉 were only symbolic. During the Guangxu period of the Empress Dowager Cixi, it was almost extinct and the pheasant was rare. On the contrary, chicken, duck, pork, lamb, “South Fresh”, Bird’s Nest, Swita, Fish fins, fish and shrimp crabs and other seafood products have increased significantly in time. The cooking techniques are mainly fried and steamed, and they also have a variety of cooking methods such as stewing and steaming, as well as stewing, baking, roasted, baked, mixing, frying, explosive, smoked, sacral, straw, brewing, cooking, hot pot and other cooking methods. So far, various traditional cooking methods have been used in the middle of the Qing Dynasty in the middle of the Qing Dynasty.
Demystifying the “Royal Tea Fang” file
The living and eating habits of feudal emperors in the past are national secrets, and people outside the court cannot understand. The Qing Dynasty’s internal affairs government recorded the diet of the emperor in detail, and formed nearly 200 million words of dietary records- “Yu Tea Restaurant” archives, and before any dynasty in the Qing Dynasty left, no files were left in this area! According to records, the emperor has two meals a day for “breakfast” and “dinner”, and there are several dimensions or snacks outside the two meals. Eating two meals a day is the food habit of the northern nation, which is related to the cold climate in the north and long and long day and night. In the end of the Qing Dynasty, there was an electric light in the court, and then the two meals were gradually changed to three meals. Emperor Qianlong loved hot pot all his life. According to the one -year record of Qianlong’s 54th year (1789), he ate more than 200 hot pots in this year, and sometimes three hot pots a day. Essence The “Royal Food File” includes the “Successor’s Bottom”, which records more than 500 Suzhou cuisine in the archives, and the menu of Suzhou cuisine held in the palace of the emperor. In the daily meal list of Emperor Qianlong, the first dish must be Suzhou cuisine. It is often made of Zhang Dongguan. Even when he was fortunate to be north and south, he took Zhang Dongguan and other Suzukuki. Emperor Daoguang prefers eggs, and even the New Year’s dining table was indispensable. The Empress Dowager Cixi prefers snack sweets and fruits, and the taste of other emperors is different. The last emperor Pu Yi likes the delicious Western food. In 1931, Puyi became the puppet emperor of the pseudo -“Manchuria” and set up a western dining room in the pseudo -“palace”.
Take the royal meal of the sixteenth year of Qianlong (1765) as an example: In the second moment of the first time, please drive and serve the rock sugar stewed bird’s nest (with the golden bell cover of Chunshoubao). At the moment of Zhengzheng, Breakfast of Dongnenhe Pavilion in Yangxin Temple: Bird’s Nest Red White Duck South Fresh Hot Pot, Stewed Stuffy Tofu (Wufu Enamel Bowl), steamed duck paste, pork deer tail plate, bamboo roll (flower roll) (flower roll) (flower roll) Xiaoban first one grade (Huang Pan); Shu Fei, Ying Fei, Yu Fei, Yu Fei entered the four grades of the vegetables, followed the face of one grade, and the old rice water meal (the soup bowl of the grain of the grain enamel bowl of the gold bell); Table: No. 2 Yellow Bowl, Four Pin Four, Lamb Shisi (Five Fook Bowls), Tits Eight Products, a table of 13 products, a table of fifteen grades, one table of eight pieces of meat, one table of mutton. Weizheng, Huang Xinzhuang’s palace dinner: bird’s nest duck hot pot, oil stir -fried cabbage, fat chicken tofu slices soup (these two grades and five blessings enamel bowls), beef grease wild duck one product, crystal balls one grade, silk pork pig Elbow one product, fire smoke pork belly one product (this three grades 2 yellow bowl); then send small shrimp rice oil fire residue fried spinach, steamed chicken roasted meat deer tail plate, pork stuffing (original) buns, elephant eyes, elephant eyes Chess cake small buns, roasted sacrifice god cakes, enamel sunflower box side dishes, enamel dishes, four grades, and free -to -japonica rice meals (soup bowl five valleys Feng Deng enamel gold bowl). Seven tables of eclipse: tits eight grades, three grades, and No. 2 yellow bowl of vegetables, one product of one table, one table, tits two grades and fifteen grades (inside with the four grades of food) The table, the inner pipe leads to eat the one -table, the two tables of the two tables, the two tables of the plate, and the two tables of mutton. At the beginning of the first two, the long -lived grandfather palace was ascended to see the fireworks boxes with princes and adults. Watching the fireworks is still the palace, serving the risilic acid spinach, the fresh shrimp rice puppet, the vinegar duck waist one product, the pot chicken one product. Total this day: one product early, breakfast for breakfast, four tables for eclipse, dinner for eighteen products, seven tables of eclipse, supper and four grades.
The emperor’s meal time is relatively fixed but flexible, which often depends on the needs of the emperor himself. Generally, after getting up at four in the morning, drink a bowl of drinks such as rock sugar stewed bird’s nest. Breakfast is from 7 am to 9 am, dinner from 1. to 3 pm, from time to time from 7 to 8pm, a dinner dinner will be added. If the emperor sleeps one day, he will eat late (supper). From the diet schedule of Emperor Qianlong’s day, it can be seen that in addition to the two meals, the emperor will also have irregular meals, asking the royal dining room to be ready at any time, and the emperor wants to eat it immediately. The types of the emperor each meal are relatively fixed. Generally, there are hot vegetables, pots, steamed foods, cooked foods, pickles, staple foods, soup porridge and desserts. There are some special dishes in the festival and seasonal season, such as the Lantern Festival of the 15th of the first month, the moon cakes of the Mid -Autumn Festival in August 15th, the dumplings of the Dragon Boat Festival on the fifth day of May, the Chongyang Flower Cake of the Chongyang Festival on the ninth day of September Essence Another example is Lichun’s spring cakes, Gu Yu’s elm cakes, autumn leaves (noodle soup) and winter solstice. There is also a unique dining of the court, such as “auspicious dishes” is a kind of dish only in the late Qing Dynasty. It is generally composed of four large bowls of dishes. Each bowl of dishes are put on a bird’s nest to present a word “Wanshou No Borders” or ” If the emperor is happy, the emperor is like the blessing of the blessing of the birthday with cream with cream on the birthday cake today.
There are three different flavors of Qing Palace diet. The first is the flavor of Lu cuisine. The second is the traditional flavor of the Manchu. The third is the flavor of Suzhou -Hangzhou cuisine. After inheritance and improvement of these three vegetables, they constitute the dietary system of the Qing Dynasty court. The food list of Yu Shanfang during the Wanli period of the Ming Dynasty. The food that the emperor wants to eat one day: 126 catties of pork, 5 goose, 33 chicken, 60 quail, 10 pigeons, 20 catties of sesame oil, 22 catties noodles. There are also other types of ingredients: sugar, vinegar, oil, various seasonings, and so on. Calculating it, the daily standard of the emperor’s food is about 20 two silver, which is equivalent to the current RMB thousands of dollars no more than 10,000 yuan. By the time of the Qing Dynasty, the change was not too great. When the Emperor Xuantong of the Qing Dynasty reached the reign, he recalled the consumption of the Royal Fang: Eating more than 10,000 pounds of pork, chicken, duck and geese a year. Since the Kangxi era, the small kitchen system has prevailed. Pu Yi himself statistics that their family of six people would consume 3960 pounds of meat and 388 chickens and ducks a month. Total silver 2342 two white silver. This is not a year, fruits, fruit, sugar, drinks, drinks, etc., and those emperors who are in the position are wasted, it would not be counted. Among the emperors of the Qing Dynasty, Kangxi was very frugal. During the forty -six years of Kangxi, the Royal Fang reported to the Internal Affairs House. The accounting shows that Kangxi’s one -year diet cost 3781 white silver, plus small stoves such as the concubine’s concubine’s concubines at all levels, and other stoves. According to scholars, the annual income of an ordinary four -mouth home during the Qianlong period was about 32 two white silver, and the average person was only 8 or two. In other words, the emperor’s one -year food costs are enough for a people to spend more than 2,000 years.
Both the royal and the people are unhappy. The main event of the New Year in the Qing Dynasty was that the emperor led the queen, concubine, and princes to worship the ancestors, and held a family banquet. In the early Qing Dynasty, the emperor’s New Year’s Day (New Year’s Day in the ancient Spring Festival) was given a banquet or meat, which is relatively affordable and extensive. Each flag has ten tables and fifth goose. The generals of the generals have 20 tables and 20 goose. A total of 100 tables, a hundred bottles of alcohol, and cooking beasts. Emperor Kangxi once changed the full seat of the New Year’s Day banquet to the Han seat. According to the “Emperor of the Emperor Saint”: “The New Year’s Day Banquet, the Manchuria feast is tedious. . Since the New Year’s Day, the banquet is given to the Han seat. “In the 49th year of Qianlong (1784), the emperor used the” 65 pounds of pork, one fat duck, three cauliflower duck three, Only three fat chickens, seven vegetable chicken, three pork elbow, two pork belly, eight small belly, 25 catties of wild pork, five Kanto goose, 20 pounds of mutton, fifteen pounds of venison, pheasant Six pounds, four fish, four deer tails, and three large pig intestines. ” The emperor should use 65 pounds of pork and 25 pounds of pork. It is not counted as chickens, ducks, goose, mutton, venison, fish, etc. In the sixty years of Qianlong (1795), the first night of the first month of the first month: “Deer intestine deer belly hot pot, bird’s nest yam, stewed duck hot pot, fat chicken crown, yam, chick chicken hot pot, one soup chicken chicken Yipin, one product of one product (these two grades and five Fangfang enamel bowls), a bird’s nest stew duck, steamed Kanto duck Luwei Danico, a grilled fatty meat, a nipple of the eyes of the eyes (This three -grade enamel plate), green and white jade without covering sunflower box, one product, enamel dish, four products, a piece of bacon, and one -piece rice dried rice diet (soup bowl Sanyang Kai Thai enamel bowl, gold and silver flower, honeysuckle flower, honeysuckle flower Line with a meal, as usual). “Except for a few pieces of small dishes are meat dishes. The main food and habits of the Manchu food are the main foods and habits of the meat. When the New Year of the Palace also eats a vegetarian or not, it is necessary to eat vegetarian dumplings in the evening of the 30th year, which means to eat the next year. Usually amaranth, but a vegetarian stuffed dumplings in the New Year. This was because Nurhachi led the thirteen sub -armor (armor) when he founded the gold, killing too many innocent creatures. Rules to commemorate innocent deceased. Until the Guangxu period, the court kept the custom of eating vegetarian dumplings on New Year’s Eve, in order not to forget the ancestor’s founding of starting a business. The emperor was very tired of the New Year. On New Year’s Eve, he was given a banquet at the palace at noon on New Year’s Eve. He returned to the Ganqing Palace for a while in the afternoon and started a family banquet at five or six o’clock in the evening. The emperor’s family banquet is out of the constraint of the “etiquette”, and also separates two men and women. This is to avoid old princes to contact the non -born concubine. of.