Imagine that you float in space. Quiet and cold, quiet but a little scary. Suddenly, you feel a cavity, and it is weak at first, but when it pulls you to an empty place in the sky, this force will become stronger and stronger. Before you realize this, you have entered a black hole. “Priyamvada Natarajan) said:” Just then, the universe began to have a strange impact on you. “
With the release of the first black hole picture, any remaining questions about these time and space monsters will be eliminated. However, physicists still have great controversy about what happened in the black hole system. So, what is your fate? All objects will apply gravity to each other, but in most cases, this force is quite weak. In the example of the black hole, the gravity is so strong that there is nothing-or even light-can escape. The black hole is so huge that the time itself begins to distort. When you fall in, you don’t feel different, but for anyone who watchs you, you seem to be slower.
Along the sewer of the drainage hole of this universe, all the photons are pulled to you, and a dazzling light will be rotated around a completely dark hole, just like we see in the photos of the “Incident Scenaria” Telescope Group. That’s the way. Two strange effects will affect your last step: the faintly visible darkness will wash your eyes, because the speed of the black hole seems to be much faster than you think, and the surrounding stars will start to twist and bend.
This is your last chance to escape. Going forward, you will cross the horizon. This is a line that is too large in black and unable to resist.
“When you can see the events of the incident, you can see the stars around it when you can see the events of the incident.” The curved light will be wrapped around the black hole, but when you accelerate the point that cannot be returned, the gravitational field will be accelerated, and the gravitational field will The intensity will change the nature of the light you can see. If your neck muscles have the strength to make you look at your shoulders finally, all the starlight behind you will gather together to form a red dot. At the same time, the tranquility of the outer space will become dark, and you will feel that you are downhill.
Then your body will suffer amazing torture. The gravity inside the black hole increases so fast that it will not only crush you, but also separate each part of your body at different speeds, which will lead to “noodle effects”. If your feet fall first, your ankles will extend from your knees before your neck is stretched into a string of pink powder, but the difference in time will be small, and you may not notice it. “It will happen in the blink of an eye,” Natallazan said, it may not be the best way to express, because your eyes will suddenly jump out. “
What will happen after the new noodle effect?
A: Stay in place
The law of thermodynamics is ruthless. Even black holes can’t escape their trials. According to the second law, the entropy or disqualification in the universe will never be reduced. So when your messy body falls in, the entropy it contains cannot be erased. This must be explained by the increase of the entropy of the black hole itself. But if the black hole has entropy, it must have a temperature, so, just like any temperature object, it must radiate the heat.
How can radiation escape an inevitable object? In 1974, Stephen Hawking came up with a way to change, invented a radiation that is now named after his name.
Hawking radiation does not emerge from the heart of the black hole, but consists of particles and their anti -particle twins, and these particles suddenly appear near the horizon. Such particles are always everywhere. These sub -atomic twin brothers are essentially linked, and any change of them will immediately affect the other. In the language of quantum mechanics, they are called entanglement.
Due to this sub -atom conspiracy, any anti -particles falling into the black hole will have a partner particles survived to radiate and reduce the energy of the black hole. But this left us a worrying consequence: at a certain moment, the black hole will be completely radiated and takes you away.
This disappearing behavior violates another basic principle of theoretical physics: information cannot be disappeared like this. Even if the information is destroyed in one form, just like a book was thrown into the fire and burned, the information is still retained in the surviving smoke and ashes particles-although this form is more difficult to read. Physicists rely on this continuity to obtain information about the past and make predictions on the future. If it disappears out of thin air, all the physics we know will become meaningless.
If the black hole can destroy information, it can destroy all your traces. game over.
B: Waiting for the release of the black hole.
Some physicists believe that when the black hole evaporates through Hawking, you can keep it in the black hole and then release it in its dying breathing. In this way, at least some of your information will not be lost forever, but have been imprisoned for a long time, because the black hole is slowly leaked and released.
At some point in the distant future, according to the initial size of the black hole, the events of the incident will become very small, so that even a single wave of light cannot be squeezed in. At this point, the radiation related to your remains will be released. Except for the empty space where the black hole used to be, nothing will be left.
But this protracted fan -catching game has a fatal defect: Black Hole cannot determine the speed of output radiation, which is determined by the law of thermodynamics. The more radiation from a certain thing, the smaller the radiation it deserves, and the smaller the radiation it gets, the less radiation it can emit. When the black hole becomes small enough, no thing can be expelled when it spit out its last meal. The black hole will make a sobbing instead of banging, and any remnant trace you exist will disappear.
C: Find a white hole exit.
Just as black holes do not allow any objects to escape their gravity, the imaginary objects called white holes cannot be gathered together. One idea is that each black hole is connected to a white hole through a dimension tunnel called a insect hole. Falling into a black hole, you will eventually be thrown out by the white hole.
However, for Carlo Rovelli, the University of Aix-Marseille University, there is a way to do this without even wormholes. On the contrary, he believes that every white hole was a black hole in the past, which means that in a distant future, when the black hole turns back to a white hole, your remains may be spit out. But how did this change happened?
Once the stars collapse formed a black hole, the atoms of it are closely combined and began to be restricted by the laws of quantum physics. This will lead to some strange and violating intuition phenomena. The most important one is the so -called quantum tunnel. It says that the particles have a small but non -zero opportunity, and go straight through a barrier that could not be penetrated. Luo Weili said that for the particles falling into the black hole, this means that they can theoretically pass through the “strange point” of the infinite density of the center, and then rebound back. “The things that landed inside the black hole arrived at the center, just like hitting a wall, because according to Einstein’s theory, it could not come back anymore.” Luo Veli said, “But quantum theory allows it to” tunnel penetration ‘and re -appears again. “,”
This created a scene of time and space rebounding outward, forming a white hole. For an external observer, this process takes billions of years, but internally, due to the huge gravity of black holes, time will accelerate. Luo Weili said: “You fall from the center, and the time to rebound on the other side will be a few milliseconds. If we can look inside, you will look like frozen.” Essence
Congratulations, you found a way to leave the black hole. Maybe you look confused.
D: Drive yourself
As Stephen Hawking pointed out, the black hole continued to radiate. So, if your identity is not destroyed or hidden forever, but is leaked in the form of Hawking radiation? Unfortunately, this actually makes things much more complicated.
Hawking radiation is composed of virtual particles. These particles are briefly existed near the event field. One of the entangled partner particles is sucked in, while the other escapes. But if this is the case, quantum mechanics brings us an unpleasant paradox. We already know that Hawking’s radiation particles and their partner particles they have just fallen in are entangled. But because Hawking radiation contains the information of each of the particles that has been dropped (and these particles are entangled with their own radiation particles), any shot particles must be entangled with the previous Hawking radiation.
Quantum mechanics does not allow this multi -spouse relationship. The basic principle of a monogamy, known as the entangled monogamy, said that particles cannot be entangled with two things at the same time. If your information wants to leave the black hole through Hawking, you need to happen to it.
In this case, you try to violate the law of quantum physics. You can choose between these three options: break through the fire wall, occur in time and space leakage, and split the universe.
1. Break through the firewall
A way to get out of the quantum dilemma is to summon a firewall. If this firewall exists only in the incident, it will break the entanglement between any disappeared particles outside the black hole and their partners.
The problem is that this obstacle is completely incompatible with the general theory of Albert Einstein. The latter predicts that the incident of the black hole will not feel that there is any difference from the surrounding space. According to Einstein, the pulling force of gravity should always be the result of acceleration: if you speed up in space in the rocket, you will feel that gravity is pushing you back to your seat. This equivalent principle should be applied on any side of the event range, which means that when you pass through it, you should not notice anything unusual.
But even if we allow the existence of this obstacle, this is not a good way out. If you cross it, you will be fried cleanly, and the same is true of others.
2. Time and space leakage
An idea around the black hole is that they are connected to a cosmic worm hole that spans the dimension. But if it is not into the white hole in the other side, the pipeline of the universe is not so spectacular. What would happen?
Leonard Susskind at Stanford University in California and Juan Maldacena, Juan Maldacena of Princeton University, envisages a kind of wormhole. It’s like the root network of a tree. Each tiny pipeline is only enough to appear in a single Hawking radiation photon, allowing the black hole to evaporate, while avoiding the paradox of firewalls and information loss. This information is saved because it leaves the black hole along one of these branches and does not create a firewall, because nothing will cross the events of the event. More importantly, because we have eliminated the partner particles, the entangled monogamous monogamy never needs to be broken. Win -win!
Unfortunately, there is a problem. According to Aidan Chatwin-Davies of the University of Rune, Belgium, the process violates the core principles of quantum physics, that is, information cannot be destroyed. If you throw a quantum entity into the black hole, you get the heat radiation, and the information it contains has disappeared from our universe. This is a big universe taboo.
You try to destroy information protection, but this never goes smoothly. Try it again?
3. Divide the universe
What if our universe is not the only one? This is a radical idea, but it is the point of serious treatment of the supporters of the world’s multi -world views. They said that whenever the quantum process occurs, the universe will split, creating a different parallel world for every imaginary future.
This means that when you jump into the black hole, all imagined results occur on a parallel existence plane. This means that you seem to violate the basic principles of information conservation, as long as you do this in another universe.
Edan Chatewin Davis of the University of Ruwudi, Belgium, said that the different branches of multiple universes in the world are interconnected, which means that your destiny has now spans multiple versions of multiple universes. You may burn in the firewall, fall off the white hole, leak into the structure of time and space, or may not fall in at all. The law of physics may collapse in the universe. We can see and interact with it, but in the billions of potential real worlds, the reason is restored.
Congratulations, one of you (possibly) survived.
You can try again.
But if it is not a black hole?
For all these unhappy black holes: simply re -imagine what the black hole is. In classic physics, there is no way to prevent material collection, become a star, and then collapse into a black hole. Gravity will not stop.
String theory. Its starting point is that material is not composed of basic particles, but consists of tiny string. In the gravity of a normal black hole, these strings will be wrapped together. “Samir Mathur) of Ohio State University said:” The more energy you invest in a system, the larger the ball. Similar to planetary objects, the planet does not cause information loss. “
If you fall on such a fuzzy ball, you will still die miserable, but you will not become a part of nothing, but will become something. First, when you approach it, you will feel warm. When you pass through the incident and continue to the huge strings, you will be torn. When you reach the ground, your body will become a beam of string.
When you are absorbed by the string ball, you will start on the surface of the black hole and mix with other string there.Martor said, “By then, you will be dismantled and you will not survive anymore. But your string will vibrate.” Your thoughts and memories have long been gone, but those who make you become the universe in the universeOne of the most strange places.
End until some theorists come up with better things.