Talk about the seventy -five of the Chinese Shoes History Series

The development history of sulfurized shoes

Sulfid shoes are shoe products formed during the vulcanization process of rubber, that is, adding sulfurizers and promoters such as rubber and promoters to the rubber, and under a certain temperature and pressure conditions The process of mesh structure. Touring the source, sulfurized shoes have been introduced to China for less than a century.

As early as the early 17th century, the Indians in South America tried to use the rubber juice collected from the rubber tree for shoes. They put their feet in the rubber juice and grilled them, and became the most primitive rubber shoes. However, although this kind of rubber shoes can be waterproof, it will become soft and sticky in the hot summer, and it is difficult to remove it on the feet. This primitive rubber shoes cannot be promoted in life at all.

In the mid -18th century, French scientist Frean brushed the preparation of the preparation on the shoes, just like the ancient Chinese shoe technology. Although this rubber shoes are similar to the current rubber shoes production process, the problem of fever and sticky surface is not solved. It is not as good as the four seasons of Chinese oil shoes. Although scientists already know that natural rubber materials have good waterproof performance, the problem of how to change the nature of natural rubber materials for shoes is still not resolved.

After more than 100 years, the American shoe -making business natural film made into the sole. Although it has good elasticity and it is also very comfortable to wear it, what makes the shoe dealers did not expect that in the summer, wearing this kind of rubber shoes, the soles will change, and the soles will change. Soft hair sticks to the floor, and it is easy to break in winter. It is undoubtedly a creation to use rubber to make the sole, but the sensitive performance of the gelatin bottom of the temperature causes the shoe maker to have a headache. How to improve the performance of the rubber has become an urgent need to solve.

漫谈中国鞋史系列篇之七十五——硫化鞋之发展史

In the 1840s, the inventor Charles Guteter in the United States accidentally discovered the vulcanizing response of natural rubber, becoming strong and wear -resistant and elastic. More importantly, it changed the sensitivity to temperature and became rubber products. Excellent materials. Since then, Charles Getter has applied for the US patent for the vulcanization method of rubber and began to raise funds to manufacture and sell rubber products such as rubber bands, pistols, and tires. It is particularly worth mentioning that he also invented the lace -free rubber shoes, waterproof rubber boots and other sulfide shoes. Since then, the rubber shoes have become popular in countries around the world because of their comfortable wearing and cheap prices. Guteter’s name has not only become synonymous with vulcanized rubber, but also the inventor of rubber shoes. Since the birth of Guteter’s first pair of rubber shoes, the rubber factories have sprung up in Europe and Japan, and the colorful rubber shoes have been favored.

Add chemical elements such as sulfur and carbon black to raw rubber, and then through high -temperature and high pressure process conditions, a practical sulfurized rubber is generated, and further optimized on this basis to achieve modern sulfur rubber. The ideal vulcanization process, in addition to choosing the best vulcanization conditions, the choice of its cooperative agent is also decisive. With the increase of synthetic rubber varieties and the innovation of vulcanization methods and vulcanizers, many “non -vulcosamides” with vulcanization effect have been found, so the original “vulcanization” of Gutter has developed into an extended industrial term. The vulcanized rubber has changed the inherent defects such as low strength, small elasticity, cold and hard heat, and easy aging. The performance of abrasion resistance, anti -dissolution, heat resistance, etc. have significantly improved, and the scope of application has been significantly expanded.

For Chinese shoes, vulcanized shoes are undoubtedly “export products” from overseas, and vulcanized rubber is a “export product” from overseas. Without rubber, there are no sulfur shoes.

In 1927, Yu Zhiqing, an overseas Chinese businessman in Japan, introduced rubber equipment and rubber shoes from Japan, and opened the Shanghai Greater China Rubber Factory with rubber expert Xue Fuji. Boots, as the name suggests, are the rubber boots that set on the cloth shoes on rainy days. Boots, also known as water shoes, water boots, rubber boots, rubber boots, etc. The method of mechanized rubber sulfur sulfur boots makes the Chinese people open the eyes. The original rubber shoes can also be done: the large natural rubber is crushed, refined, mixed, crushed, and cut into a film -like film. Put a lining in a socks with aluminum shoe ravioli, put the film on the surface of the lining and put it into the huge steam tank; then go through a series of closed tanks, heating, pressure, sulfurization, cooling, opening, whole tank, whole whole can After the process and other processes, a pair of bright, hypertrophic and brand -new boots can be listed and sold, becoming a new favorite of people under the rainy days. The high -quality domestic boots are continuously listed on the market, and the monopoly market situation of foreign boots has gradually gone. Since then, China has also had its own rubber shoes, rubber rain boots and other sulfur shoes and rubber products. Yu Zhiqing’s brilliant performance has been repeatedly awarded by the government or chamber of commerce, known as the “rubber king”.

In the past 80 years, especially since the 1950s, the style, functions, and characteristics of rubber shoes have undergone tremendous changes. Dwarf rains, high -top raindrops, high rain boots, farmland rain boots, fire boots, acid -resistant boots and other rubber shoes are colorful; light shoes, casual shoes, sneakers, sneakers, oil -resistant shoes, insulation shoes and other cloth rubber shoes, There are everything; the color, the red orange, yellow, green, blue and purple, colorful. All in all, vulcanized shoes have greatly enriched the shoe consumer market.

The factory that produces rubber sulfur shoe products is not only a shoe factory, but also a rubber factory. Because without the production of sulfurized rubber materials, there is no sulfur -of -shoes product. Due to the great impact of temperature and time, the quality problem of “sulfur (aging)” is not suitable for the production of sulfurized shoes if the “sulfur (aging) phenomenon” occurs. Therefore, the factory that produces sulfide shoes must be a factory that produces sulfide rubber, and the two must be an inseparable whole. Even if the canvas rubber shoe factories, molded leather shoe factories, or shoe component factories, such as sulfurized rubber as raw materials, must have rubber workshops that are supported by the size of the shoe products, and it is impossible to achieve the purpose of producing sulfur shoe.

For many years, the basic process of producing sulfurized rubber is mature, and product quality, production efficiency, and equipment performance have been steadily improved. The basic process of producing sulfurized shoe rubber is broken glue → plastic refining → mixed → crushing tablets → pressing flowers → tailoring and other processes. Broken glue is to process large pieces of natural rubber with a knife or glue machine into small pieces to facilitate plastic refining; plastic refining is to fill the small pieces of natural rubber into the roller of the rubber refiner Processing below to achieve the purpose of reducing elasticity and obtaining plasticity; mixing is to mix plastic gum with various built -in agents in rollers of the rubber -refining machine to achieve Purpose; crushing is to fill the mixed glue into the roller of the pressing machine into a film with different thickness or patterns to meet the process requirements of the shoe and sole; The pattern, such as the soles of the shoe, the fence pattern, etc.; The tailoring is to cut the piece of film into a process that meets the shape of the shoe part to meet the combination of the shoe and the process of sulfide. It is particularly worth mentioning that the processing of mixed glue from the process of refining to secret refining can automatically carry out the process of filling, pinching, pressurization, and discharge Save the raw and auxiliary materials, especially the entire process is performed in a sealed state. The significant reduction of dust and the improvement of the production environment are even more significant.

As far as the sulfur -of -shoe technology is concerned, after the Shanghai Greater Chinese Rubber Factory opened by Yu Zhiqing, there is basically no change, and it is still carried out in the sulfur tank. Its basic process elements are aluminum hollow, fabric shoes, raw films, sulfide tanks, etc.; The basic process process is to help the fabric shoes on the shoe → the soles and shoes of the raw film are pasted on the fabric shoes On the shoe rack car → push the car into the vulcanized tank and be in a closed state → gradually increase the temperature into the pipeline in the sulfur tank into the pipeline of the steam → use the fan to blow up the temperature in the can → Use the compressor to use the compressor to put the hot air in the tank with a compressor. Increase pressure → Make the shoe in the tank in a high -temperature and high pressure vulcanization state → complete the vulcanization forming type → cooling, reducing the tank door after the specified sulfide → After the launch of the shoe car decorated with sulfurized shoes and become a product.

The temperature in the sulfur tank (110-120 ° C) enables the rubber sheets on the soles of the shoe to sulfur, and the pressure (0.3-0.4MPa) makes the rubber film closely bonded with the fabric shoes in the sulfur. The most typical product style is rubber raindrops and canvas surface. The military shoes known as the “liberation shoes” are canvas noodle sulfur shoes. Volunteer soldiers who fight against the United States and aid North Korea were the earliest wearing such military shoes “Xiongson crossed the Yalu River”. The invaders drove out of the “38th Line” to win the victory against the United States and aid.

As a canvas surface sulfur -sulfur shoes, it can be called the “hero” of the PLA officers and soldiers after the founding of the People’s Liberation Army. The gray front Baotou, dark gray fence and sole have become a symbol of the heroic posture of the People’s Liberation Army. During the “Cultural Revolution” period, the Red Guards were proud of wearing green military uniforms and green shoes. Until 2004, after the General Logistics Department of the PLA announced the official retirement of the “liberation shoes”, this kind of military shoes still became a best -selling product for local shoe factories to continue to produce, and it became the favorite sulfur shoe for the vast number of people in the countryside. , More importantly containing their love for the PLA.

The characteristic of sulfur -of -shoes is characterized by large products and high production efficiency, which has made traditional Nasdi shoes “dwarfed” for thousands of years. For a while, sulfur shoes swept the land of China with a thunderbolt, and became a beautiful landscape. As a military -demand sulfur shoe, a sports sulfur -sulfur shoe as a blue ball, a tennis, a sulfurized shoes for rain and drought, and sulfur boots that insert seedlings as farmers … as a new era shoe product, there is never so extensive It is favored by consumers, so the production of sulfur shoe products can be described as hot, and the consumer market can be described as in the ascendant.

Author: Quanyue

Edit: Wang Kelin

Original containment: “Western Leather” magazine November 2019